Fact File Mongolia

 Facts and figures on Mongolia


Location
Landlocked in between the bear, the Russian Federation, and the dragon, China.
Area
The 6th largest country in Asia, and the 18th largest in the world.
Surface area
1.566.500 square km.
Average altitude
1.580m above sea level.
Altitude capital Ulaanbaatar
1.350m above sea level.
Lowest point: Hoh Nuur
518 m above sea level.
Highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil
4,374 m above sea level.
Geographic coordinates
46 00 N, 105 00 E
Coldest month: January
Average temperature : - 35C
Warmest month: July
Average temperature: +25C
Climate
Extreme continental; Desert.
(large temperature ranges, both daily and seasonal).
Terrain
Steppe, semidesert and desert plains, mountains.
Sunshine
Over 260 sunny days a year , often with clear cloudless skies.
Rainfall and Snow
Snow and rainfall are very low, the climate being arid. However, enough rain usually occurs in July and August to swell rivers, and snow blizzards can occur in winter. The highest peaks have small glaciers.
Currency
Tugrug. 1Tugrug=100 mungu
 
Exchange rate
1211 Tugrugs = 1 USd (Jan, 2005)
Nationality
Mongolian
Population
2.3 million people, and one of the lowest population densities in the world. 1.5 inhabitants per 1 sq.km.
Literacy
Very high, in excess of 80%.
Ethnic groups
85% Mongol, mostly Khalkha Mongol. 
7% Turkic (mainly Kazakh), 
4.6% Tungusic
3.4% other groups.
Four million Mongols live outside Mongolia.
Language
Over 90% Khalkha Mongol ('Mongolian Language'). The script is Cyrillic due to Russian influence but a switch back to traditional script has begun in schools. Minor languages include Kazakh.
Religion
94% Tibetan Buddhist Lamas , also elements of Shamanism. 
6% Muslim (mainly in the south- west).
Government of Mongolia
Parliamentary , with President second in authority to State Great Hural (Parliament) .
Constitution
1960 and 1992, some revision 1996.
new! - Livestock Numbers
According to the 2004 livestock census, the number of livestock in Mongolia was 27,996,800: up 10% on 2003.
Preliminary estimates indicate that there are 1,999,600 horses, 1,835,500 cows, 11,659,000 sheep and 12,215,400 goats. Compared with 2003 the number of horses has increased by 30,700; cows by 42,600; sheep by 903,500 and goats by 1,562,700. The number of camels fell by 400 to 256,300.
Administrative subdivisions
21 Aimags (provinces), 
capital city
3 autonomous cities ( Darkhan, Erdenet, Choir)
 Mongolia according to the UN Human Development Report 2002, compared to the Netherlands. 
 

  Mongolia Netherlands
Life expectancy at birth 62,9 78,1
GDP per capita (USD) 1,783 25,657
Population under age 15 35,2% 18,3%
Percentage of women working 73,5% 45,4%
Percentage of GNP spent on education 85-87 11,7% 6,9%
Percentage of GNP spent on education 95-97 5,7% 5,1%

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